The IRS just announced the 2014 retirement plan benefit limits and we’re seeing some modest increases from 2013. What does it all mean for employer-sponsored retirement plans? This post analyzes the practical effects for both defined contribution (DC) and defined benefit (DB) plans, followed by a table summarizing the limit changes.
Changes affecting both DB and DC plans
- Qualified compensation limit increases from $255,000 to $260,000. Highly-paid participants will now have more of their compensation “counted” towards qualified plan benefits and less towards non-qualified plans. This helps for both nondiscrimination testing as well as for benefits.
- HCE compensation threshold remains at $115,000. For calendar year plans, this will first affect 2015 HCE designations because $115,000 will be the threshold for the 2014 “lookback” year. When the HCE compensation threshold doesn’t increase to keep pace with employee salary increases, employers may find that more of their well-paid employees become classified as HCEs. Eventually, this could have two direct outcomes:
- Plans may see marginally worse nondiscrimination testing results (including ADP results) if more employees with large deferrals or benefits become HCEs. It could make a big difference for plans that were close to failing the tests.
- More HCEs means that there are more participants who must receive 401(k) deferral refunds if the plan fails the ADP test.
DC-specific increases and their significance
- The annual DC 415 limit increases from $51,000 to $52,000 but the individual 401(k) deferral limit remains unchanged at $17,500. A $1,000 increase to the overall DC limit will allow participants to potentially get a little more “bang” out of their DC plan – at least if their employer wants to give them more money.
Since the 401(k) deferral limit counts towards the total DC limit, this means that an individual could potentially get up to $34,500 from employer profit sharing ($52K – $17.5K). Previously, their profit sharing limit would have been $33,500 ($51K – $17.5K).
- 401(k) “catch-up” limit remains at $5,500. Participants age 50 or older still only get a $5,500 catch-up opportunity. Combined with the new overall DC limit, they can effectively get a maximum DC contribution of $57,500 ($52K + $5.5K).
DB-specific increases and their significance
- DB 415 maximum benefit limit (the “dollar” limit) increases from $205,000 to $210,000. The primary consequence of this change is that individuals who have very large DB benefits (say, shareholders in a professional firm cash balance plan) could see a deduction increase if their benefits were previously constrained by the 415 dollar limit.
Below is a table summarizing the main changes to employer-sponsored retirement plan limits for 2014.